Purpose of review
The current review will cover the clinical presentation, causes, epidemiology, differential diagnoses, workup, and treatment of ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) in detail.
While ONM largely remains a unilateral eye movement disease affecting adults with a history of sellar radiation, recent case reports highlight an expansion of this presentation to include bilateral, pediatric, and congenital cases.
ONM is a rare but recognizable ocular motility disorder involving sustained contraction of the extraocular muscle, commonly resulting in intermittent diplopia. Diagnosis of ONM relies upon a thorough history and clinical exam, with particular attention to history of radiotherapy and eccentric gaze testing. Treatment with carbamazepine remains first-line therapy, although other membrane stabilizing agents and surgical interventions can be effective.