Gaps in standards for integrating artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practice : Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan Rahimy

Gaps in standards for integrating artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practice

Baxter, Sally L.a,b; Lee, Aaron Y.c

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Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 32(5):p 431-438, September 2021. | DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000781


Purpose of review 

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of healthcare standards and their relevance to multiple ophthalmic workflows, with a specific emphasis on describing gaps in standards development needed for improved integration of artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practice.

Recent findings 

Healthcare standards are an essential component of data exchange and critical for clinical practice, research, and public health surveillance activities. Standards enable interoperability between clinical information systems, healthcare information exchange between institutions, and clinical decision support in a complex health information technology ecosystem. There are several gaps in standards in ophthalmology, including relatively low adoption of imaging standards, lack of use cases for integrating apps providing artificial intelligence -based decision support, lack of common data models to harmonize big data repositories, and no standards regarding interfaces and algorithmic outputs.


These gaps in standards represent opportunities for future work to develop improved data flow between various elements of the digital health ecosystem. This will enable more widespread adoption and integration of artificial intelligence-based tools into clinical practice. Engagement and support from the ophthalmology community for standards development will be important for advancing this work.

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