ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN RETINA: Edited by Judy E. Kim and Ehsan RahimyGaps in standards for integrating artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practiceBaxter, Sally L.a,b; Lee, Aaron Y.cAuthor Information aViterbi Family Department of Ophthalmology and Shiley Eye Institute bHealth Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA cDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Correspondence to Aaron Y. Lee, Box 359608, 325 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98104, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Ophthalmology: September 2021 - Volume 32 - Issue 5 - p 431-438 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000781 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of healthcare standards and their relevance to multiple ophthalmic workflows, with a specific emphasis on describing gaps in standards development needed for improved integration of artificial intelligence technologies into ophthalmic practice. Recent findings Healthcare standards are an essential component of data exchange and critical for clinical practice, research, and public health surveillance activities. Standards enable interoperability between clinical information systems, healthcare information exchange between institutions, and clinical decision support in a complex health information technology ecosystem. There are several gaps in standards in ophthalmology, including relatively low adoption of imaging standards, lack of use cases for integrating apps providing artificial intelligence -based decision support, lack of common data models to harmonize big data repositories, and no standards regarding interfaces and algorithmic outputs. Summary These gaps in standards represent opportunities for future work to develop improved data flow between various elements of the digital health ecosystem. This will enable more widespread adoption and integration of artificial intelligence-based tools into clinical practice. Engagement and support from the ophthalmology community for standards development will be important for advancing this work. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.