RETINAL, VITREOUS AND MACULAR DISORDERS: Edited by Brandon G. Busbee and John W. KitchensRecent developments in pediatric retinaCai, Sophie; Therattil, Anthony; Vajzovic, LejlaAuthor Information Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Lejla Vajzovic, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, 2351 Erwin Road, DUMC 3802, Durham, NC 27705, USA. Tel: +1 919 684 5631; fax: +1 919 681 6474; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Ophthalmology: May 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 3 - p 155-160 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000650 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Pediatric retina is an exciting, but also challenging field, where patient age and cooperation can limit ease of diagnosis of a broad range of congenital and acquired diseases, inherited retinal degenerations are mostly untreatable and surgical outcomes can be quite different from those for adults. This review aims to highlight some recent advances and trends that are improving our ability to care for children with retinal conditions. Recent findings Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of multimodal imaging even in nonsedated infants, with portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography in particular offering structural insights into diverse pediatric retinal conditions. Encouraging long-term outcomes of subretinal voretigene neparvovec-rzyl injection for RPE65 mutation-associated Leber congenital amaurosis have inspired research on the optimization of subretinal gene delivery and gene therapy for other inherited retinal degenerations. In retinopathy of prematurity, machine learning and smartphone-based imaging can facilitate screening, and studies have highlighted favorable outcomes from intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections. A nomogram for pediatric pars plana sclerotomy site placement may improve safety in complex surgeries. Summary Multimodal imaging, gene therapy, machine learning and surgical innovation have been and will continue to be important to advances in pediatric retina. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.