TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH: Edited by Jason Hsu and Sunir J. GargImproving outcomes in retinal detachment the potential role of rho-kinase inhibitorsHalász, Évaa; Townes-Anderson, Ellena; Zarbin, Marco A.bAuthor Information aDepartment of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience bInstitute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, USA Correspondence to Marco A. Zarbin, MD, PhD, Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Room 6155, Doctors Office Center, 90 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Tel: +1 973 972 2038; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Ophthalmology: May 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 3 - p 192-198 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000658 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Retinal detachment initiates a series of events that lead to degenerative changes in retinal synaptic architecture as well as the well-known phenomena of gliosis and photoreceptor apoptosis. Retinal reattachment does not always result in complete visual recovery, even if the fovea is not directly involved in the detachment. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors may mitigate some of these deleterious changes including disruption of synaptic architecture, photoreceptor apoptosis, and initiation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition that characterizes proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This review focuses on the use of ROCK inhibitors to modulate synaptic disjunction. Recent findings ROCK inhibition prevents retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor synaptic terminal retraction (i.e., synaptic disjunction), thereby diminishing the damage of the first synapse in the visual pathway. ROCK inhibition also reduces retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis and suppresses PVR progression in preclinical models. Summary Inhibition of ROCK may help to optimize visual recovery after retinal detachment surgery or iatrogenic detachments during cell transplantation or viral subretinal injection and might play a role in reducing the risk of PVR after retinal detachment surgery. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.