NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. CestariClinical and radiologic approach to ‘typical’ versus antibody-related optic neuritisCaron-Cantin, Mariloua; Cestari, Dean M.b; Fortin, Elizabethb Author Information aDepartment of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Neuro-Ophthalmology Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Elizabeth Fortin, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Neuro-Ophthalmology Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel: +1 617 319 7957; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Ophthalmology: November 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 6 - p 412-417 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000614 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Optic neuritis is an autoimmune optic neuropathy that has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and more recently antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG)-positive disorder. At initial presentation, it is often difficult to differentiate these entities given their significant overlap in clinical presentation and MRI findings. This review summarizes the distinguishing clinical and radiological features of MS, NMOSD, and anti-MOG disorders to help clinicians accurately diagnose and manage patients affected by these conditions. Recent findings Antiaquaporin-4 (AQP4) and more recently anti-MOG antibodies are both associated with central nervous system demyelinating diseases that often initially present with optic neuritis. Serologic testing now allows for a new classification of these overlapping conditions that can help to differentiate ‘typical’ optic neuritis that is often associated with MS from ‘atypical’ optic neuritis associated with NMOSD and anti-MOG-positive disorder. Summary Optic neuritis associated with MS, NMOSD, and anti-MOG-positive disease can have a similar clinical presentation. However, some clinical and radiologic findings can help clinicians to differentiate these entities so that they can be properly managed to optimize visual prognosis. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.