NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. CestariAdvances in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritisIng, Edsela; Pagnoux, Christianb; Torun, NurhancAuthor Information aDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Michael Garron Hospital bDivision of Rheumatology, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada cDivision of Ophthalmology, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Nurhan Torun, Division of Ophthalmology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave., Shapiro 5, Boston, MA 02215, USA. E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Ophthalmology: November 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 6 - p 407-411 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000616 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Recent findings Less common manifestations of GCA include corneal edema, proptosis from lacrimal gland ischemia and sensorineuronal hearing loss. Histology studies have suggested that temporal artery biopsies (TAB) with fixed specimen lengths of 15 mm may be adequate to prevent false negative biopsies. In centers with appropriate radiologic expertise, a European rheumatology consensus guideline has proposed Doppler ultrasound as a first-line confirmatory test for GCA in lieu of temporal artery biopsy. Finding extracranial large vessel disease can help to diagnose GCA. Statistical prediction rules can help risk stratify patients with suspected GCA. Age and platelet level when maintained as continuous variables are the strongest predictors for GCA. Summary GCA can present with diverse ophthalmic and systemic presentations and expedient recognition of same can avoid diagnostic delay and possible vision loss, among other complications. TAB remains the conventional diagnostic standard test for GCA. The use of statistical prediction models and increased expertise in noninvasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound may decrease reliance on TAB, especially in patients determined to be at low risk for GCA. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.