After failed conservative management, most clinicians treat congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in a conventional stepwise fashion: starting with probing, then repeat probing, next silicone intubation and/or balloon dilatation, and finally dacryocystorhinostomy. This approach is based on the patient's age and previously failed procedures and recruits ‘one procedure for all’ CNLDO. A newly introduced approach is based on the type of obstruction and recruits ‘all procedures for one’ CNLDO. The aim of this review is to examine the best available evidence regarding CNLDO management.
Recent articles support the concept that through intraoperative evaluation of obstruction in CNLDO, clinicians may predict probing failure and instantaneously employ more appropriate treatment modalities. This review addresses whether an age-based approach should be changed into a one-stage obstruction-based approach.
An age-based approach treats CNLDO as a homogeneous disease and thus treats all patients with one predetermined procedure. A one-stage obstruction-based approach, however, considers CNLDO to be a heterogeneous disease, and therefore allows recruitment of all procedures simultaneously and selects the best intraoperatively. It may allow replacement of the conventional stepwise approach to CNLDO treatment provided that randomized trials verify its efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.
Video abstract http://links.lww.com/COOP/A30.
Eye Department, Eye Research Center, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence to Mohsen B. Kashkouli, MD, Eye Research Center, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Sattarkhan Niayesh St., Tehran 1455364, Iran. Tel/. fax: +9821 66558811; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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