Purpose of review
Myopia refers to a refractive state of the eye that can predispose to visually significant ocular disease. The prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Researchers internationally have been investigating methods to slow down its progression to prevent sight-threatening complications. In this article, we perform a review of the current literature discussing interventions for preventing pediatric myopic progression.
Various interventions, including lifestyle modification, optical methods, and pharmacologic approaches, have been proposed to help control myopic progression. Increasing time spent outdoors can help prevent myopia onset, but has a clinically questionable effect on progression of myopia. Contact lenses that reduce peripheral retinal hyperopic defocus represent a new area of research and may hold promise as an effective intervention in myopia control. Orthokeratology shows moderate reduction rates in myopic progression whereas atropine drops, even at low doses, show the most impressive effect on slowing myopia.
Atropine eye drops, followed by orthokeratology lenses, are the most effective in slowing down axial elongation and myopic progression. Guidelines for use and the target populations for such interventions have not been well established and more research is warranted in these areas. Treatment should be tailored to each patient.