Although reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP) through medications, laser or surgery remains the primary means of glaucoma treatment, there is increasing evidence during the last decade that environmentally modifiable factors may help to prevent glaucoma or its progression through different mechanisms that may or may not involve lowering IOP. Additionally, patients are increasingly interested in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking an active role in the management of their disease. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding environmentally modifiable factors such as lifestyle, exercise, and nutrition in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
In the last decade, large population-based studies have helped to identify possible environmentally modifiable protective and risk factors with regard to glaucomatous disease. Smoking cessation; moderate aerobic exercise; recommended weight; and a balanced diet including green leafy vegetables, omega fatty-acids, and moderate intake of hot tea and coffee have been reported to be possibly protective against developing glaucoma or its progression.
Modifiable environmental factors such as lifestyle, exercise, and nutrition may play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Large prospective studies with long-term follow-up should be encouraged to corroborate these findings, which may guide future treatments for our patients, some of which may not be limited to IOP reduction.
aFundación Oftalmológica los Andes, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile
bDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco
cDepartment of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford
dGlaucoma Center of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Correspondence to Shan Lin, MD, 55 Stevenson St., San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. Tel: +1 415 981 2020; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org