The aqueous humor supplies nutrients to the nonvascularized cornea, lens, and trabecular meshwork. A number of tissue growth factors have been detected in this fluid. The composition of these proteins changes dramatically with different ocular conditions, such as inflammation and glaucoma. In this review, an overview of new findings regarding effects of aqueous humor growth factors is given. Our main emphasis is on the regulation of the avascular anterior eye compartment, the possible role of growth factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, and the importance of growth factors for the special immunosuppressive status of the anterior chamber.