The integrity of the corneal epithelium is, among other factors, dependent on the function of corneal stem cells which serve as proliferative reserve. The concept that corneal stem cells are located in the basal limbal epithelium has been further strengthened by experimental evidence. Furthermore, the usefulness of surgical treatment for bilateral stem cell malfunction by means of limbal allograft transplantation has been confirmed. The field of growth factor interactions has further been expanded by the meaning such factors have for the paracrine cross-signaling between the various corneal cell populations, especially epithelium and stroma. This review focuses on the progress that has been made in the field of corneal cell biology in the context of stem cells, wound healing, and corneal angiogenesis.
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