Purpose of review
Urothelial carcinoma is one of the 10 most common forms of cancer in the world with more than half a million cases diagnosed yearly. The past few years have witnessed a revolution in understanding the biology of urothelial carcinoma and the development of promising therapies. In this review, we summarize the emerging therapeutic approaches in the management of advanced urothelial carcinoma.
Since 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved five checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor, and an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) for the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma. Additionally, the FDA has granted several breakthrough designations for other therapeutic strategies including other ADCs.
CPIs, anti-FGFR agents and ADCs are significant advancements that offer new treatment options to patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. However, there remains a need to understand mechanisms of resistance, identify biomarkers to choose potential responders, and learn the best strategy to sequence these agents in regards to lines of therapy.