Purpose of review Radioiodine
-refractory thyroid cancers represent the main cause of thyroid cancer
-related death. At present, targeted therapies with multikinase inhibitors represent a unique therapeutic tool, though they have limited benefit on patient survival and severe drug-associated adverse events. This review summarizes current treatment strategies for radioiodine
-refractory thyroid cancer
and focuses on novel approaches to redifferentiate thyroid cancer
cells to restore responsiveness to radioiodine
We summarize and discuss recent clinical trial findings and early data from real-life experiences with multikinase-inhibiting drugs. Possible alternative strategies to traditional redifferentiation are also discussed.
The current review focuses primarily on the major advancements in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iodine transport and metabolism and the genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring in thyroid neoplasia as described using preclinical models. Results of clinical studies employing new compounds to induce thyroid cancer
cell redifferentiation by acting against specific molecular targets are also discussed. Finally, we describe the current scenario emerging from such findings as well as future perspectives.