GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif HussainOptimization of therapies for men with advanced prostate cancer: a review of recent developments with a look toward the futureGourdin, TheodoreAuthor Information Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA Correspondence to Theodore Gourdin, MD, Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Tel: +1 (843)792 4895; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Oncology: May 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 3 - p 188-193 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000521 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Summarizes the rapid progress being made in treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Debate remains regarding the optimal sequencing of therapies in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer with attention focused on the use of abiraterone versus docetaxel. Randomized trials now show a potential advantage to next-generation antiandrogens in the setting of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patient-specific genomic anomalies, in particular DNA repair defects, provide targets for therapy with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors alone and in combination with other interventions. Adjustments in the dose and administration schedule of the accompanying steroid may improve the efficacy of abiraterone. Novel radiopharmaceuticals and immunotherapies suggest progress is on the horizon for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Summary In this review, we will highlight the avenues of research leading to optimization of therapies for men with advanced prostate cancer. Known therapeutics, such as docetaxel and abiraterone, are being used earlier in the disease course in the setting of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer, and next-generation antiandrogens in the setting of nonmetastatic castration-resistant disease. Existing interventions are being optimized, including a maneuver to salvage abiraterone response with steroid switch. Finally, individualized therapies directed at specific genomic aberrations, a radiopharmaceutical targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen, and immune therapy combinations are providing potentially additional treatment options for patients with refractory disease. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.