ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann SosaCurrent management of pediatric thyroid disease and differentiated thyroid cancerTracy, Elisabeth T.; Roman, Sanziana A. Author Information Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA Correspondence to Sanziana A. Roman, MD, Section of Endocrine Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 2945, Durham, NC 27710, USA. E-mail: [email protected]; Elisabeth T. Tracy, MD, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 3815, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Tel: 919 681 5077; fax: 919 681 8353; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Oncology: January 2016 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 37-42 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000250 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review In this article, we focus on the role of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration, management of benign nodules, extent of thyroid resection, management of regional lymph node disease, and risk stratification in staging for well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in children. Recent findings The recent guidelines by the American Thyroid Association focused specifically on the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children and adolescents marks a change from previous versions, which extrapolated adult guidelines to the pediatric population. DTC in children has a distinct presentation and clinical behavior compared with adult disease. The overall excellent outcomes for pediatric patients have led to a risk stratification approach in their management (low, intermediate, and high-risk disease groupings), aiming to minimize the potential morbidity of treatment. Summary In this review, we focus on pediatric thyroid disease, including recent studies and debates regarding the management of thyroid nodules and DTC. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.