HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. SanzState-of-the-art of bone marrow imaging in multiple myelomaMartí-Bonmatí, Luisa; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristinab; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángelc; Ruiz-Llorca, Cristinad Author Information aRadiology Department bMusculoskeletal Radiology Section, Biomedical Imaging Research Group (GIBI230), La Fe Polytechnic and University Hospital cBiomedical Imaging Research Group (GIBI230), La Fe Health Research Institute dNuclear Medicine Department, La Fe Polytechnic and University Hospital, Valencia, Spain Correspondence to Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Radiology Department, Biomedical Imaging Research Group (GIBI230), La Fe Polytechnic and University Hospital, La Fe Health Research Institute, Valencia, Spain. Tel: +34607873154; fax: +34961245633; e-mail: [email protected] Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.co-oncology.com). Current Opinion in Oncology: November 2015 - Volume 27 - Issue 6 - p 540-550 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000230 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Multiple myeloma is a common hematological malignancy arising in the bone marrow. Bone lesions were initially depicted with conventional radiography, although recently 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI are recognized as having a clear role in the initial workup and in the evaluation of therapy response. Recent findings Tumor development produces osteolysis and expansive lesions. Although tumor burden and extent are key prognostic factors, different cancer hallmarks can also be evaluated in vivo through noninvasive imaging. Summary This imaging-based virtual biopsy approach might be useful to define several relevant prognostic markers, such as angiogenesis, cellularity, metabolic trapping and bone morphology and elasticity, both before and during treatment, to predict tumor behavior and the early effect of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.