THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES: Edited by Steven T. RosenDelivering on the promise poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibition as targeted anticancer therapyO'Sullivan Coyne, Geraldinea; Chen, Alicea; Kummar, ShivaanibAuthor Information aDivision of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland bDivision of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA Correspondence to Shivaani Kummar, Professor of Medicine, MD, FACP, Director, Phase I Clinical Research Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 780 Welch Road, Rm CJ250L, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Tel: +1 650 724 9084; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Oncology: November 2015 - Volume 27 - Issue 6 - p 475-481 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000238 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The article presents the rationale, clinical development, and current status of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) as anticancer agents. Recent findings The recent approval of olaparib in heavily pretreated patients with advanced ovarian cancer carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation represents a significant therapeutic advance for patients with this difficult to treat disease. Though olaparib is the first agent in this class to be approved, multiple PARPis are in various stages of clinical development, including in combination with other treatment modalities such as radiation, antiangiogenic agents, and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Summary Clinical benefit has been observed with PARPis in patients with advanced BRCA1/2 mutant ovarian and breast cancers. Various PARPis, either as single agents or in combination, are being evaluated in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.