Perspectives for immunotherapy in glioblastoma treatmentFinocchiaro, Gaetano; Pellegatta, SerenaCurrent Opinion in Oncology: November 2014 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - p 608–614 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0000000000000135 BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Avoiding immune destruction is one emerging hallmark of cancer, including glioblastoma. The number of immunotherapy approaches to fight glioblastoma is growing. Here, we review the recent progress in four main areas: dendritic cell immunotherapy, peptide vaccination, chimeric antigen receptors and immune checkpoints. Recent findings We and others are using dendritic cells to present glioblastoma antigens (whole tumor lysate) to the immune system; our initial data indicate that clinical benefit is associated to increased presence of natural killer cells in the periphery. A pilot study loading dendritic cells with glioblastoma stem-like cells will start soon. Peptide vaccination targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) epitope, present in 25% of glioblastomas, is ongoing. Intriguing results have been obtained by vaccination with three other peptides in pediatric gliomas. Another clinical trial is targeting EGFRvIII by adoptive cell transfer of chimeric antigen receptor. This exciting technology could be suited for a number of other potential epitopes discovered through next-generation sequencing. Finally, antibodies against the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death-1, which demonstrated efficacy in advanced melanomas, will be used in novel trials for recurrent glioblastoma. Summary In all these studies attention to novel side-effects and to MRI as immunological follow-up to distinguish progression or pseudoprogression will be of critical relevance. Unit of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, Milano, Italy Correspondence to Gaetano Finocchiaro, MD, Unit of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Istituto Neurologico Besta, via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy. Tel: +39 02 2394 2454; fax: +39 02 2394 2453; e-mail: email@example.com © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.