Controversies in the surveillance of patients with well differentiated thyroid cancerHolt, ElizabethCurrent Opinion in Oncology: January 2007 - Volume 19 - Issue 1 - p 6–10 doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e328011a24c Endocrine tumors Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Purpose of review Thyroid cancer incidence is rising in the USA, likely due to increased surveillance. Over the past several years, new approaches have developed for the long-term monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer patients. The most recent developments in this area, as well as interesting data on molecular genetics of thyroid cancer will be discussed. Recent findings The introduction of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) imaging in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is an important development in the last few years. Recent research has helped improve understanding of how 18F-FDG PET can best be applied. There is now improved understanding of the use of serum thyroglobulin levels to predict future risk of recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association for management of thyroid neoplasia were updated in 2006 for the first time in a decade, helping physicians navigate the published data and provide evidence-based care. Ongoing advances in thyroid cancer genetics may help predict aggressiveness of individual thyroid cancers. Summary Better tools are becoming available for physicians caring for thyroid cancer patients. Recent developments in thyroid cancer research will help physicians better anticipate a patient's future disease course and select appropriate surveillance testing. Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Correspondence to Elizabeth Holt, MD, PhD, Section of Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208020, New Haven, CT 06520-8020, USA Tel: +1 203 737 1932; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.