FERTILITY, IVF AND REPRODUCTIVE GENETICS: Edited by Emre Seli and Juan A. García VelascoThe vaginal microbiome as a tool to predict IVF successSchoenmakers, Sama; Laven, Joopb Author Information aDivision of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine bDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands Correspondence to Sam Schoenmakers, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3035 GD Rotterdam. Tel: +31 0 107040704; fax: +31 0 107036815; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 32(3):p 169-178, June 2020. | DOI: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000626 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Herein, we present an overview of the recent microbiome research and findings within the field of reproductive medicine and its relation with the outcome of Assisted reproductive technology (ART). Analyses of the microbiome composition all throughout the female reproductive trace during the process of assisted reproductive techniques are discussed. Recent findings Only the vaginal microbiome can be sampled without possible risks of contamination. Although this also seems to apply to the cervical microbiome, collection has to be performed with extreme caution. Because of the high risk of cross contamination, results of microbial composition of all other sites of the female reproductive tract have to be interpreted with caution. The vaginal composition prior to the start of hormonal treatment for ART seems to be predictive of in vitro fertilization/in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/IVF-ICSI) outcome, with mainly a highly negative predictive value. Summary The local microbiota, especially the absence or presence of specific microbes, within parts of the female reproductive tract seem to be associated with the outcome of ART. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.