FERTILITY, IVF AND REPRODUCTIVE GENETICS: Edited by Emre Seli and Juan A. García VelascoExtracellular vesicles as a potential diagnostic tool in assisted reproductionGiacomini, Elisaa,∗; Makieva, Sofiaa,∗; Murdica, Valentinab; Vago, Riccardob; Viganó, PaolaaAuthor Information aReproductive Sciences Laboratory, Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit bDivision of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy Correspondence to Paola Viganó, Reproductive Sciences Laboratory, Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano 20132, Italy Tel: +39 02 26436228; fax: +39 02 26434311; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology: June 2020 - Volume 32 - Issue 3 - p 179-184 doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000621 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Extracellular vesicles have emerged as a promising field of research for their potential to serve as biomarkers. In the pathophysiology of reproduction, they have attracted significant attention because of their diverse roles in gametogenesis and embryo-endometrial cross-talk. Advances in extracellular vesicle translational potential are herein reviewed with a particular focus in oocyte competence, semen quality diagnostics, embryo selection and detection of endometrial receptivity. Recent findings Specific miRNAs present in follicular fluid-derived extracellular vesicles have been associated with follicle development and oocyte maturation. Some proteins known to regulate sperm function and capacitation such as glycodelin, and CRISP1 have been found as overrepresented in semen exosomes isolated from severe asthenozoospermic compared to normozoospermic men. In vitro developed human embryos can secrete extracellular vesicles whose propitiousness for preimplantation genetic testing is being increasingly investigated. Endometrial cell-derived extracellular vesicles recovered from uterine flushings might represent a reservoir of molecular markers potentially exploited for monitoring the endometrial status. Summary Accumulated knowledge on extracellular vesicles deriving from endometrium, follicular fluid, embryos or male reproductive system may be translated to clinical practice to inform diagnostics in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Validation studies and technology developments are required to implement the profiling of extracellular vesicles as diagnostic tests in ART. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.