Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition estimated to affect 10–15% of reproductive-aged women, 30% of women with subfertility, and 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Although mainstays of diagnosis and treatment are still commonly applied, there have been various advances in the modalities of diagnosis and management of this complex condition. This article provides an updated review of novel findings regarding the diagnosis and management of this challenging disease.
Despite an abundance of studies on noninvasive diagnostic markers for endometriosis, there is no single imaging study, biomarker or panel of biomarkers that has been validated for clinical diagnosis. New technologies, such as use of indocyanine green and fluorescence, which visualize neovascularization often associated with endometriosis may improve diagnostic detection of endometriosis at the time surgery, but have not been demonstrated to improve pain outcomes after surgery. Hormone suppression remains the mainstay therapy prior to and following surgery. Although most methods demonstrate similar efficacy in reducing endometriosis-associated pain, newer pharmacologic agents that may prove advantageous include oral gonadotropin receptor antagonists, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and angiogenesis inhibitors.
Although there have been some advances in the study of noninvasive imaging and biomarkers, more investigation into effective modalities are being conducted and are needed.
aAustin Fertility and Reproductive Medicine/Westlake IVF, Austin, Texas
bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan
cCenter for Reproductive Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Correspondence to Shahryar K. Kavoussi, MD, MPH, 300 Beardsley Lane, Bldg B, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78746, USA. Tel: +1 011 512 444 1414; e-mail: email@example.com