Purpose of review Mitochondria
are cellular organelles that are required for energy production. Emerging evidence demonstrates their role in oocyte
development and reproduction
. In this review, we examine recent animal and clinical studies on the role of mitochondria
. We also analyse the impact of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) on mitochondrial function and discuss the future clinical implications of mitochondrial nutrients and mitochondrial replacement.
Recent findings Mitochondria
affect all aspects of mammalian reproduction
. They are essential for optimal oocyte
maturation, fertilization and embryonic development. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes a decrease in oocyte
quality and interferes with embryonic development. ART procedures affect mitochondrial function, while mitochondrial nutrients may increase mitochondrial performance in oocytes. New mitochondrial replacement procedures using mitochondria
obtained from polar bodies or from the patient's own oogonial stem cells are promising and may address concerns related to the induction of high-levels of heteroplasmy, which could potentially result in negative long-term health effects.
Optimal energy production is required for oocyte
and embryo development, and mitochondrial abnormalities have devastating reproductive consequences. Improvement of oocyte
mitochondrial function via intake of compounds that boost mitochondrial activity may have clinical benefits, and mitochondrial replacement could potentially be used for the prevention of mitochondrial diseases.