Purpose of review
Müllerian anomalies include a fascinating constellation of congenital malformations. There is significant diversity in anatomic variants and their respective long-term sexual and reproductive outcomes. We review the current controversies in classification and management of vaginal, uterine, and fallopian tube anomalies.
Comparative trials of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laparoscopic intraoperative evaluation have demonstrated a moderately well correlated prediction of anatomic description. Three-dimensional ultrasound technology appears to be equivalent to MRI in detecting uterine anomalies; however MRI is a consistently superior method of evaluating the vaginal and cervical anatomy. Despite advances in both modalities, care at an experienced center is most highly associated with an accurate preoperative diagnosis and a decrease in the number of inappropriate surgical procedures.
Large case series continue to be the main vehicle by which treatment and surgical management of these unique anomalies are described and recommended. Case reports continue to provide information on novel approaches to improve operative techniques. In the absence of prospective studies, these series provide the only emerging information on the long-term sexual and reproductive function of women with vaginal and uterine anomalies.
Recent developments in three-dimensional ultrasonography and MRI improve our ability to accurately describe and diagnose female reproductive tract anomalies. With the description of new complex malformations, which do not fall into the recognized American Society of Reproductive Medicine, formerly American Fertility Society (AFS) classification system, questions arise regarding embryologic development upon which this classification system is based and support attempts to devise a new, comprehensive classification. Advances in surgical correction have expanded the options for the reconstructive surgeon when approaching a patient with an anomaly of the reproductive tract.