Reproductive endocrinologyPredictive values of ultrasound monitoring of the menstrual cycleMatijevic, Ratko; Grgic, OzrenAuthor Information University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Zagreb University, Sveti Duh Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia Correspondence to Ratko Matijevic MD PhD MRCOG, Sveti Duh Hospital, Sveti Duh 64, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Tel: +385 1 37 123 17; fax: +385 1 37 455 34; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology: August 2005 - Volume 17 - Issue 4 - p 405-410 doi: 10.1097/01.gco.0000175360.35341.2b Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review summarizes the current knowledge about ultrasound scanning values in monitoring the structural and functional changes of the uterus and ovaries during the menstrual cycle. Recent findings The views that ovulation is more frequently right sided have been challenged, with recent data suggesting that ovulation occurs randomly. A ‘follicular wave phenomenon’, providing a new model for ovarian function during the menstrual cycle, has been described. Follicular development occurs in a wave-like fashion and women with two waves have earlier endometrial development due to earlier increase of the dominant follicle estrogen production. Myometrial contractions during menstrual cycle should be considered in the assessment of endometrial thickness. Uterine–ovarian arterial blood flow impedance is important in understanding the normal physiology of the menstrual cycle and may be of use in assisted conception protocols. Summary At present, ultrasound scanning has an important role in noninvasive assessment of endometrial and ovarian cyclical changes and may be of particular importance in assisted conception procedures. Further work is likely to help in understanding its full diagnostic potential. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.