ArticleOvarian endometriosis: from pathogenesis to surgical treatmentBusacca, Mauro; Vignali, MicheleAuthor Information Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Milan, Ospedale Macedonio Melloni, Milan, Italy Correspondence to Prof. Mauro Busacca MD, Ospedale Macedonio Melloni, via Macedonio Melloni 52, 20129 Milan, Italy Tel: +39 02 63633332; fax: +39 02 710645; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology: August 2003 - Volume 15 - Issue 4 - p 321-326 doi: 10.1097/01.gco.0000084247.09900.4f Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review analyzes the literature on ovarian endometrioma, examining the controversies on pathogenesis, malignant transformation and surgical therapy. Recent findings Recent literature reflects the necessity of clearly defining the ethiologic and pathologic factors that determine the origin of ovarian endometriosis and explain the increase in the condition with the prospect of developing effective prevention therapy. The possibility that ovarian endometriomas undergo malignant transformation is widely reported in the literature. Recent studies underline the importance of detecting histological differences in endometriosis (hyperplasia and atypia) and several studies of molecular biology support the theory of genetic alterations interfering with malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis. Summary The surgical approach must take into account all this information and, when the therapy is conservative, complete excision of the disease must be laparoscopically performed without affecting the healthy ovarian tissue. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.