Purpose of review
Recently, many guidelines have given new evidence on the risk factors for stroke. In this review, I refer to the most important guidelines for primary prevention of stroke and hypertension, especially focused on diet and physical activity.
The health behavior recommendations in recent guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke are virtually identical, and the same recommendations appear in the recent guidelines for the management of hypertension, especially with respect to diet and physical activity. The recommended health behaviors consist of weight reduction, reduction of salt intake, increase in fruit and vegetable intake, decrease in saturated and total fat intake (increase in fish intake), physical activity, and moderation of alcohol consumption. Fruits and vegetables have high levels of potassium, antioxidants, phytochemicals, and dietary fiber, and thus are also considered preventive of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. It was found that individuals with many of these health behaviors have been shown to have a lowered risk of stroke.
The health behaviors, especially those related to diet and physical activity, appearing in recent guidelines for the management of hypertension are also important for the primary prevention of stroke, and appear in recent stroke guidelines.