Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:
1. Visser NA, Notermans NC, Linssen RS, et al. Incidence of polyneuropathy in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Neurology 2015; 84:259–264.
2. Simon NG, Ayer G, Lomen-Hoerth C. Is IVIg therapy warranted in progressive lower motor neuron syndromes without conduction block? Neurology 2013; 81:2116–2120.
3. Joint Task Force of the E, the PNS. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society–First Revision. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2010; 15:1–9.
4. Joint Task Force of the E, the PNS. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of multifocal motor neuropathy
. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society–first revision. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2010; 15:295–301.
5. Vlam L, van der Pol WL, Cats EA, et al. Multifocal motor neuropathy
: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment strategies. Nat Rev Neurol 2011; 8:48–58.
6. Franssen H, Wieneke GH. Nerve conduction and temperature: necessary warming time. Muscle Nerve 1994; 17:336–344.
7. Franssen H, Wieneke GH, Wokke JH. The influence of temperature on conduction block. Muscle Nerve 1999; 22:166–173.
8. Allen JA, Lewis RA. CIDP diagnostic pitfalls and perception of treatment benefit. Neurology 2015; 85:498–504.
9. Duggins AJ, McLeod JG, Pollard JD, et al. Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Brain 1999; 122:1383–1390.
10. Kuwabara S, Nakajima M, Matsuda S, Hattori T. Magnetic resonance imaging at the demyelinative foci in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neurology 1997; 48:874–877.
11. Taniguchi N, Itoh K, Wang Y, et al. Sonographic detection of diffuse peripheral nerve hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. J Clin Ultrasound
12. Goedee HS, Brekelmans GJ, van Asseldonk JT, et al. High resolution sonography in the evaluation of the peripheral nervous system in polyneuropathy: a review of the literature. Eur J Neurol 2013; 20:1342–1351.
13. van Es HW. MRI
of the brachial plexus. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:325–336.
14. Goedee HS, Brekelmans GJ, Visser LH. Multifocal enlargement and increased vascularization of peripheral nerves detected by sonography in CIDP: a pilot study. Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 125:154–159.
15. Van Es HW, Van den Berg LH, Franssen H, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus in patients with multifocal motor neuropathy
. Neurology 1997; 48:1218–1224.
16. Eurelings M, Notermans NC, Franssen H, et al. MRI
of the brachial plexus in polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24:1312–1318.
17. Zaidman CM, Harms MB, Pestronk A. Ultrasound
of inherited vs. acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies. J Neurol 2013; 260:3115–3121.
18. Padua L, Martinoli C, Pazzaglia C, et al. Intra- and internerve cross-sectional area variability: new ultrasound
measures. Muscle Nerve 2012; 45:730–733.
19. Padua L, Granata G, Sabatelli M, et al. Heterogeneity of root and nerve ultrasound
pattern in CIDP patients. Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 125:160–165.
20. Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Behrendt V, et al. Nerve ultrasound
score in distinguishing chronic from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 125:635–641.
21. Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Gold R, Yoon MS. Bochum ultrasound
score allows distinction of chronic inflammatory from multifocal acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies. J Neurol Sci 2015; 348:211–215.
22. Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Haghikia A, et al. Nerve ultrasound
protocol in differentiating chronic immune-mediated neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 2016; 54:864–871.
23. Grimm A, Decard BF, Axer H, Fuhr P. The Ultrasound
pattern sum score - UPSS. A new method to differentiate acute and subacute neuropathies using ultrasound
of the peripheral nerves. Clin Neurophysiol 2015; 126:2216–2225.
24. Grimm A, Vittore D, Schubert V, et al. Ultrasound
pattern sum score, homogeneity score and regional nerve enlargement index for differentiation of demyelinating inflammatory and hereditary neuropathies. Clin Neurophysiol 2016; 127:2618–2624.
25. Van den Berg-Vos RM, Van den Berg LH, Franssen H, et al. Multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy
: a distinct clinical entity? Neurology 2000; 54:26–32.
26. Rajabally YA, Knopp MJ, Martin-Lamb D, Morlese J. Diagnostic value
of MR imaging in the Lewis-Sumner syndrome: a case series. J Neurol Sci 2014; 342:182–185.
27. Shibuya K, Sugiyama A, Ito S, et al. Reconstruction magnetic resonance neurography in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Ann Neurol 2015; 77:333–337.
28▪. Jongbloed BA, Bos JW, Rutgers D, et al. Brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging differentiates between inflammatory neuropathies and does not predict disease course. Brain Behav 2017; 7:e00632.
The first systematic study on distribution of MRI abnormalities in relation to different types of chronic inflammatory neuropathy.
29. Rajabally YA, Chavada G. Lewis-sumner syndrome of pure upper-limb onset: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic features. Muscle Nerve 2009; 39:206–220.
30▪▪. Goedee HS, van der Pol WL, van Asseldonk JH, et al. Diagnostic value
of sonography in treatment-naive chronic inflammatory neuropathies. Neurology 2017; 88:143–151.
A large systematic nerve ultrasound study that used an elaborate and standardized ultrasound protocol in consecutive treatment-naive patients with CIDP and MMN, and a random sample of clinically relevant mimics, This study provides Class II evidence that, in the absence of clinical features suggesting a possible demyelinating hereditary neuropathy, sonographic enlargement of proximal median nerve segments and brachial plexus reliably identifies patients with CIDP, LSS and MMN. Nerve thickness is the most robust parameter and ultrasound protocols could, therefore, be reduced to a short sonographic test.
31. Viala K. Diagnosis of atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a practical overview based on some case studies. Int J Neurosci 2016; 126:777–785.
32. Lozeron P, Lacour MC, Vandendries C, et al. Contribution of plexus MRI
in the diagnosis of atypical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. J Neurol Sci 2016; 360:170–175.
33▪. Goedee HS, Jongbloed BA, van Asseldonk JH, et al. A comparative study of brachial plexus sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy
and multifocal motor neuropathy
. Eur J Neurol 2017; 24:1307–1313.
First comparative study of MRI and nerve ultrasound in treatment-naive chronic inflammatory neuropathies.
34▪. Chaves H, Bendersky M, Goni R, et al. Lumbosacral plexus root thickening: establishing normal root dimensions using magnetic resonance neurography. Clin Anat 2018; doi: 10.1002/ca.23073. [Epub ahead of print].
First MRI study to report normal values of lumbosacral nerve roots based on healthy controls and correlation with dissection of cadaver specimens.
35. Hiwatashi A, Togao O, Yamashita K, et al. Evaluation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: 3D nerve-sheath signal increased with inked rest-tissue rapid acquisition of relaxation enhancement imaging (3D SHINKEI). Eur Radiol 2017; 27:447–453.
36. Tanaka K, Mori N, Yokota Y, Suenaga T. MRI
of the cervical nerve roots in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a single-institution, retrospective case-control study. BMJ Open 2013; 3: e003443. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013- 003443.
37▪. Garcia-Santibanez R, Dietz AR, Bucelli RC, Zaidman CM. Nerve ultrasound
reliability of upper limbs: effects of examiner training. Muscle Nerve 2018; 57:189–192.
38. Cejas C, Rollan C, Michelin G, Nogues M. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologia 2016; 58:88–100.
39. Hiwatashi A, Togao O, Yamashita K, et al. Lumbar plexus in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: evaluation with 3D nerve-sheath signal increased with inked rest-tissue rapid acquisition of relaxation enhancement imaging (3D SHINKEI). Eur J Radiol 2017; 93:95–99.
40. Wang X, Harrison C, Mariappan YK, et al. MR neurography of brachial plexus at 3.0 t with robust fat and blood suppression. Radiology 2017; 283:538–546.
41. Sollmann N, Weidlich D, Cervantes B, et al. High isotropic resolution T2 mapping of the lumbosacral plexus with T2-prepared 3D turbo spin echo. Clin Neuroradiol 2018; doi: 10.1007/s00062-017-0658-9.
42. Ishikawa T, Asakura K, Mizutani Y, et al. MR neurography for the evaluation of CIDP. Muscle Nerve 2017; 55:483–489.
43. Haakma W, Jongbloed BA, Froeling M, et al. MRI
shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy
. Eur Radiol 2017; 27:2216–2224.
44. Kronlage M, Pitarokoili K, Schwarz D, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: diagnostic accuracy and correlation with electrophysiology. Invest Radiol 2017; 52:701–707.
45. Markvardsen LH, Vaeggemose M, Ringgaard S, Andersen H. Diffusion tensor imaging can be used to detect lesions in peripheral nerves in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Neuroradiology 2016; 58:745–752.
46. Beekman R, van den Berg LH, Franssen H, et al. Ultrasonography shows extensive nerve enlargements in multifocal motor neuropathy
. Neurology 2005; 65:305–307.
47. Rajabally YA, Morlese J, Kathuria D, Khan A. Median nerve ultrasonography in distinguishing neuropathy
sub-types: a pilot study. Acta Neurol Scand 2012; 125:254–259.
48. Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Behrendt V, et al. Correlation of nerve ultrasound
, electrophysiological and clinical findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. J Neuroimaging 2015; 25:207–216.
49. Grimm A, Decard BF, Athanasopoulou I, et al. Nerve ultrasound
for differentiation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multifocal motor neuropathy
. J Neurol 2015; 262:870–880.
50. Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Behrendt V, et al. Multifocal motor neuropathy
: correlation of nerve ultrasound
, electrophysiological, and clinical findings. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2014; 19:165–174.
51. Di Pasquale A, Morino S, Loreti S, et al. Peripheral nerve ultrasound
changes in CIDP and correlations with nerve conduction velocity. Neurology 2015; 84:803–809.
52. Simon NG, Kiernan MC. Precise correlation between structural and electrophysiological disturbances in MADSAM neuropathy
. Neuromuscul Disord 2015; 25:904–907.
53. Franssen H, Straver DC. Pathophysiology of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies-part I: neuroscience. Muscle Nerve 2013; 48:851–864.
54. Kovalchuk MO, Franssen H, Van Schelven LJ, Sleutjes B. Comparing excitability at 37 degrees C versus at 20 degrees C: differences between motor and sensory axons. Muscle Nerve 2018; 57:574–580.
55. Hageman S, Kovalchuk MO, Sleutjes B, et al. Sodium-potassium pump assessment by submaximal electrical nerve stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 2018; 129:809–814.
56. Gasparotti R, Lucchetta M, Cacciavillani M, et al. Neuroimaging in diagnosis of atypical polyradiculoneuropathies: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Neurol 2015; 262:1714–1723.
57. Hobson-Webb LD, Donahue SN, Bey RD. Multifocal motor neuropathy
: 30 years from onset to diagnosis. Muscle Nerve 2016; 53:490–491.