SEIZURE AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Edited by Philippe RyvlinManagement of autoimmune encephalitisBien, Christian G.a,bAuthor Information aBielefeld University, Medical School, Department of Epileptology (Krankenhaus Mara), Campus Bielefeld-Bethel, Bielefeld bLaboratory Krone, Bad Salzuflen, Germany Correspondence to Christian G. Bien, Epilepsy Center Bethel, Krankenhaus Mara, Maraweg 17-21, 33617 Bielefeld, Germany. Tel: +49 521 77278800; fax: +49 521 77278872; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Neurology: April 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 2 - p 166-171 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000909 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Autoimmune encephalitides are established diagnoses in contemporary neurology. Their management poses a regular challenge for almost all neurologists. One may ask if the concept of 1st line and 2nd line treatment is still up to date, which new data on the antibody-defined encephalitis types exist, and how to organize long-term management. Recent findings The 1st line/2nd line concept of initial immunological intervention is accepted worldwide. A randomized controlled trial confirmed that one 1st line compound (intravenous immunoglobulins) is superior to a placebo in patients with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1. Rituximab, a 2nd line compound, is increasingly and apparently successfully used in treating different types of autoimmune encephalitis. It may find its place even earlier in the treatment cascade. Long-term management needs to be improved and is under development. Summary There have been no groundbreaking new developments in the field. The published experience confirms existing suggestions. Aspects of long-term management including rehabilitation measures and counseling about driving eligibility require further research. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.