TRAUMA AND REHABILITATION: Edited by Martin M. Monti and Nicholas SchiffQuantitative multimodal imaging in traumatic brain injuries producing impaired cognitionShah, Sudhin A.a; Lowder, Ryan J.a; Kuceyeski, AmybAuthor Information aDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine bDepartment of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to Sudhin A. Shah, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 E 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA. Tel: +1 212 746 6022; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Neurology: December 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 6 - p 691-698 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000872 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Cognitive impairments are a devastating long-term consequence following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This review provides an update on the quantitative mutimodal neuroimaging studies that attempt to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying cognitive impairments and their recovery following TBI. Recent findings Recent studies have linked individual specific behavioural impairments and their changes over time to physiological activity and structural changes using EEG, PET and MRI. Multimodal studies that combine measures of physiological activity with knowledge of neuroanatomical and connectivity damage have also illuminated the multifactorial function-structure relationships that underlie impairment and recovery following TBI. Summary The combined use of multiple neuroimaging modalities, with focus on individual longitudinal studies, has the potential to accurately classify impairments, enhance sensitivity of prognoses, inform targets for interventions and precisely track spontaneous and intervention-driven recovery. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.