SEIZURE DISORDERS: Edited by Matthew C. WalkerThe cognitive costs, contraindications and complications of epilepsy surgery in adultsBaxendale, SallieAuthor Information UCL, Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK Correspondence to Sallie Baxendale, PhD, ESRC, Epilepsy Society, Chesham Lane, Chalfont St Peter SL9 0RJ, Buckinghamshire, UK. Tel: +44 01494 601353; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Neurology: April 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 2 - p 207-212 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000799 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Access to epilepsy surgery is rapidly growing throughout the world. While it is an established and effective treatment for seizures, epilepsy surgery has the potential to exacerbate cognitive comorbidities of the condition. Recent findings Not all surgical patients experience a postoperative decline in cognitive function. Postoperative cognitive function depends upon the functional integrity of the tissue to be removed and the functional reserve of the structures that remain in situ. While developments in surgical technique can reduce the cognitive morbidity of epilepsy surgery, the same procedure may result in different cognitive outcomes for different candidates, depending on their preoperative characteristics and postoperative trajectories. Multivariate models can be used to identify those most at risk of cognitive decline. There remains a significant lack of research into clinical interventions aimed at reducing the impact of surgically induced cognitive deficits on the lives of the patients who experience them. Summary Accurate identification of the cognitive risks associated with surgery, based on an individual's personal risk profile rather than the generic risks associated with the procedure, is now recognized as a mandatory part of the preoperative evaluation and is one of the pillars of informed consent for the procedure. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.