NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Heather E. MossRetinal vessel changes in cerebrovascular diseaseDumitrascu, Oana M.a; Koronyo-Hamaoui, MayabAuthor Information aDepartment of Neurology bDepartment of Neurosurgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA Correspondence to Oana M. Dumitrascu, Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 127 S. San Vicente Blvd, A6600, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Tel: +1 424 315 4451; fax: +1 310 423 0148; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Neurology: February 2020 - Volume 33 - Issue 1 - p 87-92 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000779 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The retina is growingly recognized as a window into cerebrovascular and systemic vascular conditions. The utility of noninvasive retinal vessel biomarkers in cerebrovascular risk assessment has expanded due to advances in retinal imaging techniques and machine learning-based digital analysis. The purpose of this review is to underscore the latest evidence linking retinal vascular abnormalities with stroke and vascular-related cognitive disorders; to highlight modern developments in retinal vascular imaging modalities and software-based vasculopathy quantification. Recent findings Longitudinal studies undertaken for extended periods indicate that retinal vascular changes can predict cerebrovascular disorders (CVD). Cerebrovascular ties to dementia provoked recent explorations of retinal vessel imaging tools for conceivable early cognitive decline detection. Innovative biomedical engineering technologies and advanced dynamic and functional retinal vascular imaging methods have recently been added to the armamentarium, allowing an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of the retinal vasculature. Improved artificial intelligence-based deep learning algorithms have boosted the application of retinal imaging as a clinical and research tool to screen, risk stratify, and monitor with precision CVD and vascular cognitive impairment. Summary Mounting evidence supports the use of quantitative retinal vessel analysis in predicting CVD, from clinical stroke to neuroimaging markers of stroke and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.