The current article provides a brief summary of the clinical approach to congenital and acquired ptosis. An increasing number of publications analyze causes of ptosis or describe diagnostic tests or advances in ptosis genetics. The aim of our work is to summarize these findings and provide an updated algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with ptosis. This review covers important clinical research and studies relevant for neurologists recently published.
Ptosis is a common cause of referral to neuromuscular units. Knowledge of the different causes of this symptom has grown substantially in recent years, from diagnostic tests and genetics studies to potential new therapeutic agents, making it essential to keep up to date on the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of these contributions.
We emphasize that ptosis should be studied as a complex symptom. Efforts should be made to identify accompanying neurologic or ophthalmologic signs in clinical examination that could lead to a diagnosis. A growing number of diagnostics tests are available in the field, especially in genetics. Meanwhile, surgery continues being the most used therapeutic approach for these patients.
aNeuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Barcelona
bCentro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Valencia
cOpthalmology Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
Correspondence to Jordi Díaz-Manera, MD, PhD, Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, C/Sant Antoni M. Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain. Tel: +34 935565986; fax: +34 5565602; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org