NEUROIMAGING: Edited by Stefan KlöppelToward precision medicine: tailoring interventional strategies based on noninvasive brain stimulation for motor recovery after strokeKoch, Philipp J.a,b; Hummel, Friedhelm C.a,b,cAuthor Information aDefitech Chair of Clinical Neuroengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics (CNP) and Brain Mind Institute (BMI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Geneva bDefitech Chair of Clinical Neuroengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics (CNP) and Brain Mind Institute (BMI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL Valais), Clinique Romande de Réadaptation, Sion cClinical Neuroscience, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland Correspondence to Friedhelm C. Hummel, Defitech Chair of Clinical Neuroengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics (CNP), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Campus Biotech, Rm H4.3.132.0849, Chemin des Mines 9, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: +41 21 69 35 440; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Neurology: August 2017 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 388-397 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000462 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed. Recent findings Neuroimaging studies investigated alterations in neuronal network settings during the recovery process from stroke and can explain a relevant amount of variance in residual motor function. In this regard for instance, the microstructural integrity of the corticospinal tract and its influence on cortical and subcortical functional and structural connectivity alterations shows a relevant impact on individual recovery from the acute to the chronic state. Summary Based on this understanding, a ‘one-suits-all’ NIBS strategy for clinical application appears insufficient and understanding of therapeutic susceptibility to NIBS gained from structural and functional imaging studies will help to develop patient-tailored NIBS-based interventional strategies towards precision medicine, as a promising future prospective within this field. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.