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Functional movement disorders

Teodoro, Tiago; Edwards, Mark J.

doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000350
MOVEMENT DISORDERS: Edited by Kailash P. Bhatia

Purpose of review The review highlights the most relevant recent developments in the field of functional movement disorders (FMD).

Recent findings The emphasis on making a ‘positive’ diagnosis has driven a renewed interest in assessing the value of simple clinical signs. Furthermore, an effort has been made to develop and test objective diagnostic tools. The association of FMD with several comorbidities is being acknowledged. Pathophysiological understanding has grown with the identification of new neurobiological abnormalities, including a decreased interoceptive sensitivity. Finally – and most importantly – the recognition of the potential benefits of specialized physiotherapy is changing FMD management.

Summary The field of FMD is moving forward on a number of fronts, including diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. A major priority for future research is providing robust evidence regarding treatment.

aDepartment of Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

bInstituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa

cServiço de Neurologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisboa, Portugal

Correspondence to Mark J. Edwards, Department of Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, SW17 0RE, London, UK. E-mail:

Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights resereved.