Purpose of review
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a potentially blinding disorder of unknown cause, characterized by elevated intracranial pressure in the absence of a mass lesion, venous sinus thrombosis, or meningitis. This review summarizes recent developments and insights from leading treatment trials, emerging treatment options, and evolving ways to evaluate IIH.
The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial is the first large-scale, randomized, prospective study to evaluate medical treatment of patients with mild vision loss. These data have facilitated our understanding of baseline clinical manifestations, including impact on quality of life and treatment outcomes. Recent hypotheses and studies evaluating the role of cerebral venous sinus stenosis and stenting are discussed. Technological advances in optical coherence tomography are emerging to provide novel ways of evaluating and tracking optic disc swelling in IIH.
Recent changes in defining IIH, understanding the impact and treatment of mild visual loss, and the roles that cerebral venous stenting and optical coherence tomography might have in clinical practice provide the framework to better treat patients with IIH.