Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology: Edited by James F. AchesonOptical coherence tomography of the retina: applications in neurologyJindahra, Panithaa; Hedges, Thomas Rb; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos Ec; Plant, Gordon Ta,d,eAuthor Information aThe National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK bTufts University, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA cCuban Institute of Ophthalmology ‘Ramón Pando Ferrer’, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba dMoorfields Eye Hospital, UK eSt Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London, UK Correspondence to Panitha Jindahra, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK E-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Neurology: February 2010 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p 16-23 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e328334e99b Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review This review summarizes the mechanisms and recent developments of optical coherence tomography and its practical uses in neurology. The application of optical coherence tomography imaging of the retina in multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease are reviewed. Recent findings Thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer has been detected in patients with optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. However, the patterns of change differ in some aspects. Summary The findings indicate loss of retinal ganglion cells and may reflect degenerative change in the brain in these conditions. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness may be used as a biological marker and may help to distinguish between optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.