Inflammatory diseases and infection: Edited by Wendy C. ZiaiRole of inflammatory markers in brain ischemiaRodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castillo, JoséAuthor Information Department of Neurology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Correspondence to Dr Manuel Rodríguez-Yáñez, Department of Neurology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Travesa da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain Tel: +34 981 950 332; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Neurology: June 2008 - Volume 21 - Issue 3 - p 353-357 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282ffafbf Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the risk of stroke and during the acute phase of brain ischemia, which contributes to functional outcome of patients. We review the role of inflammatory markers in these aspects of brain ischemia. Recent findings Systemic inflammatory mechanisms are associated with higher risk of stroke and vascular recurrences after a first ischemic stroke. Several inflammatory molecules are implicated during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, such as cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), adhesion cell molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1, intercellular adhesion molecule type 1) and metalloproteinases. Metalloproteinases and vascular cell adhesion molecule levels are useful in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) and adhesion cell molecules are related to the presence of early neurological deterioration and infarct volume. Finally, metalloproteinases play an important role in the development of hemorrhagic transformation. Summary Molecular markers of inflammation can be useful tools for the management of patients with ischemic stroke, both during the acute phase and to predict prognosis and prevent the risk of a new vascular event. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.