Inflammatory diseases and infection: Edited by Wendy C. ZiaiFungal brain infectionsScully, Eileen P; Baden, Lindsey R; Katz, Joel TAuthor Information Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Joel T. Katz, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA Tel: +1 617 732 5540; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Neurology: June 2008 - Volume 21 - Issue 3 - p 347-352 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282fee95b Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Fungal infections of the central nervous system, once a relatively rare occurrence, are increasingly common due to the expansion of immunocompromised populations at risk, and therefore are important to recognize early and manage appropriately. Recent findings The specific infectious risk posed by novel immune-modifying therapies can, in most cases, be predicted on the basis of the immune target and medication timing. In addition, major advances in noninvasive diagnostic tests (e.g. serum beta glucan and galactomannan assays), and the recent introduction of more effective antifungal therapies, have led to a dramatic improvement in clinical outcomes. Summary The current review provides approaches to patients with suspected central nervous system fungal infections based on host-risk factors, clinical syndromes and specific pathogens. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.