Neuromuscular diseases: nerveInfectious neuropathyde Freitas, Marcos RGAuthor Information Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Correspondence to Marcos R.G. de Freitas MD, PhD, Full Professor, Rua Gastão Ruch 16 apt 1402, Icaraí, Niterói, RJ CEP 24220-100, Brazil Tel: +55 21 27104804; fax: +55 21 27107740; e-mail: email@example.com Current Opinion in Neurology: October 2007 - Volume 20 - Issue 5 - p 548-552 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e32826fbca6 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Infectious neuropathy affects a large number of people worldwide. There is evidence of direct involvement of nerves by the infective agent, from the immune reaction of the patient or secondary to the toxicity of the drugs used during treatment. This group of neuropathies is often treatable or preventable. Recent findings There is a complex clinical picture of the neuropathy of leprosy, different pathological features and immunological mechanisms. If the skin is unaffected in leprosy it is not always easy to demonstrate that the neuropathy is due to leprosy. Peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic infection with hepatitis C virus may be due to the virus, the development of vasculitis or direct neurotoxic effects of the treatment. Peripheral neuropathy has become the chief neurological syndrome in individuals infected with HIV-1. The antiretroviral therapies themselves can cause peripheral neuropathies clinically indistinguishable from those caused by the virus. The occurrence of chronic polyneuropathy as a late manifestation in Lyme disease is extremely rare and is not well understood. Summary Although infectious neuropathies are very frequent, mainly in developing countries, further studies are needed to elucidate their mechanisms of action, focusing on preventive interventions. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.