Neuromuscular diseases: nerveImmune circuitry in the peripheral nervous systemKieseier, Bernd Ca; Hartung, Hans-Petera; Wiendl, HeinzbAuthor Information aDepartment of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany bDepartment of Neurology, Julius-Maximilians-University, Wuerzburg, Germany Correspondence to Heinz Wiendl, MD, Department of Neurology, Julius-Maximilians-University, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany Tel: +49 931 201 23755; fax: +49 931 201 23488; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Neurology: October 2006 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 437-445 doi: 10.1097/01.wco.0000245365.51823.72 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The aim of this review is to describe the local immune circuitry in the peripheral nervous system and its dialogue with systemic immunity under pathological conditions. Specifically, interactions of the immune system with cellular and extracellular components within peripheral nerve and immune functions of tissue-resident endoneurial macrophages and Schwann cells will be discussed. Recent findings New insights into the elements involved in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system provide a better understanding of the complex interplay of these cellular and molecular components in the immunology of the peripheral nervous system. Summary The application of innovative and cutting-edge technologies to the study of immunoinflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system provides a better understanding of underlying principles of the organization of the immune network present in the peripheral nerve and its dialogue with the systemic immune system. This may foster the development of specific and highly effective therapies for immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nerve. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.