Spinal cord injury disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and urethral sphincter function. The present review addresses studies in animals and humans that have evaluated various therapeutic approaches for normalizing lower urinary tract function after spinal cord injury.
Departments of Pharmacology and Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Correspondence to Naoki Yoshimura MD, PhD, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pharmacology, W1353 Biomedical Science Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Tel: +1 412 383 7368; fax: +1 412 648 1945; e-mail: email@example.com