Nanomedicine in kidney disease : Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

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RENAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Edited by Orson W. Moe and Susan Quaggin

Nanomedicine in kidney disease

Bishop, Boaza,b,c; Sharma, Swagatb; Scott, Evan A.b,d,e,f

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Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 32(4):p 366-376, July 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000897


Purpose of review 

The pathophysiological understanding of kidney-related disorders has profoundly increased; however, tissue-specific and cell-specific treatments in this field remain scarce. Advances in nanomedicine enable alteration of pharmacokinetics and targeted treatments improving efficiency and reducing toxicity. This review addresses recent developments of nanocarriers used for various purposes in the broad field of kidney disease, which may pave a path to new therapeutic and diagnostic solutions employing nanomedicine.

Recent findings 

Controlled delivery of antiproliferative medications enables improved treatment of polycystic kidney disease and fibrosis. Directed anti-inflammatory treatment mitigated glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Multiple injury pathways in AKI have been targeted, with therapeutic solutions for oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, local inflammation and improving self-repair mechanisms. In addition to such treatment development, noninvasive early detection methods (minutes after ischemic insult) have been demonstrated as well. Sustained release of therapies that reduce ischemia–reperfusion injury as well as new aspects for immunosuppression bring hope to improving kidney transplant outcomes. The latest breakthroughs in gene therapy are made achievable by engineering the targeted delivery of nucleic acids for new treatments of kidney disease.


Recent advances in nanotechnology and pathophysiological understanding of kidney diseases show potential for translatable therapeutic and diagnostic interventions in multiple etiologies of kidney disease.

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