SPECIAL COMMENTARY: Edited by Barry BrennerRedlining has led to increasing rates of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations: a hypothesisScotland, Kymora B.a; Cushing, Larab; Scales, Charles D. Jrc; Eisenman, David P.d; Goldfarb, David S.e Author Information aDepartment of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles bDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California cDepartments of Surgery and Population Health Science, Duke Surgical Center for Outcomes Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina dDivision of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine, and Center for Healthy Climate Solutions, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California eNYU Langone Health and NYU Grossman School of Medicine, and New York Harbor VA Healthcare System, New York, New York, USA Correspondence to David S. Goldfarb, MD, Chief, Nephrology Section, New York VA Medical Center, Professor of Medicine and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, Nephrology Section/111G, New York DVAMC, 423 E. 23 St., New York, NY 10010, USA. Tel: +1 212 686 7500 x3877; fax: +1 212 951 6842; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: January 2023 - Volume 32 - Issue 1 - p 103-109 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000845 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review The persistent rise in kidney stone prevalence in recent decades has prompted much speculation as to the causes. There has been some discussion about the effect of heat on nephrolithiasis. Here, we review recent data and postulate that heat may play a role in stone formation on a large scale and among African-Americans in particular. Recent findings African-Americans are the race/ancestry group with faster rates of increasing incidence and prevalence of kidney stones. We make the observation that urban heat islands in the United States have resulted in part from the effects of redlining, a practice of systematic segregation and racism in housing that led to the development of neighborhoods with substantial disparities in environmental conditions. Summary In this thought experiment, we propose that the disproportionate rise in the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations correlates with increased temperatures specifically in neighborhoods adversely affected by the practice of redlining. We discuss phenomena in support of this hypothesis and ongoing work to test this theory. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.