Purpose of review
Lipid disorder is a prevalent complication in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) resulting in cardiovascular disease (CVD), which influences on patient outcomes. Immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated the major detrimental effects on metabolic disturbances. This review will focus on the effect of immunosuppressive drugs, lipid-lowering agents with current management, and future perspectives for lipid management in KTRs.
The main pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia indicates an increase in lipoprotein synthesis whilst the clearance of lipid pathways declines. Optimization of immunosuppression is a reasonable therapeutic strategy for lipid management regarding immunologic risk. Additionally, statin is the first-line lipid-lowering drug, followed by a combination with ezetimibe to achieve the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal. However, drug interaction between statins and immunosuppressive medications should be considered because both are mainly metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4. The prevalence of statin toxicity was significantly higher when concomitantly prescribed with cyclosporin, than with tacrolimus.
To improve cardiovascular outcomes, LDL-C should be controlled at the target level. Initiation statin at a low dose and meticulous titration is crucial in KTRs. Novel therapy with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, which is highly effective in reducing LDL-C and cardiovascular complications, and might prove to be promising therapy for KTRs with statin resistance or intolerance.