Purpose of review Chronic kidney disease
(CKD) is a pervasive and growing health concern that has a significant impact on mortality and morbidity, putting stress on global healthcare systems. CKD affects ∼14% of general populations and ∼36% of high-risk populations and is projected to rise in the coming decade due to increasing rates of diabetes and hypertension.
Screen, triage, and treat programs aim to detect early stage disease with the intention of promoting medical and lifestyle interventions in line with a patient's level of risk that may slow disease progression and reduce morbidity and mortality. Early detection facilitates appropriate risk stratification
and coordination of care among patients, primary care and nephrology ensuring resources are utilized appropriately.
By using readily available laboratory measures, screening
for CKD in high-risk populations is cost effective and beneficial to both individuals and healthcare systems. Program models such as Kidney Early Evaluation Program and First Nations Community Based Screening
to Improve Kidney Health and Prevent Dialysis have proven the efficacy of screening
initiatives in these groups, but improvements are required to maximize the benefits of early CKD detection.