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Risk prediction in chronic kidney disease

Ali, Ibrahim; Kalra, Philip

Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: November 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 513–518
doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000553

Purpose of review Accurate risk stratification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly desirable to help guide earlier, targeted treatment in high-risk individuals. In this review, we report recent developments in our understanding of risk factors and risk prediction in patients with CKD.

Recent findings A large meta-analysis has shown that conventional cardiovascular risk factors continue to play an important role in disease progression and adverse outcomes in patients with advanced CKD where the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2). Several studies have shed light on novel biomarkers in CKD, including peptides (LG1 M), genes (MUC1) and metabolic factors (urinary oxalate excretion). Cortical oxygenation measured by BOLD-MRI also provides a novel radiological measure predictive of future eGFR decline. A new risk prediction score for patients with CKD G4-5 has been developed, offering an aid to decision-making in these patients.

Summary Ongoing work across various disciplines continues to unravel the determinants of CKD progression. A few notable risk prediction tools in CKD have now surfaced but whether they can be utilised to offer improved care remains a key unanswered question.

Department of renal medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Stott Lane, Salford M6 8HD, UK

Correspondence to Ibrahim Ali, Department of renal medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Stott Lane, Salford M6 8HD, UK. Tel: +44 0161 789 7373; fax +44 0161 206 5713; e-mail:

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