DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by Anil Chandraker and J. Kevin TuckerProlyl-hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney diseaseMcMahon, Gearoid M.a,b; Singh, Ajay K.a,b Author Information aRenal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital bHarvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Correspondence to Gearoid M. McMahon, MB BCh, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Tel: +1 17 999 7876; e-mail: [email protected] Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: November 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 600-606 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000554 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors are a novel class of orally administered drugs that are under development for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review discusses the biology of these drugs and their target – hypoxia-inducible factor and potential advantages and disadvantages of these therapies. Finally, we will discuss current trials in patients with both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Recent findings Recent smaller studies have found that prolyl-hydroxylase are as effective as erythropoietin in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease. We do not yet know if they have the same cardiovascular and cancer-related risk profile and these questions will be answered by large phase III trials that are ongoing. Summary Although prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors have much potential, questions remain regarding their efficacy and safety. Should these concerns prove to be unfounded, the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease will likely be transformed over the next decade. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.