CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY: Edited by David S. GoldfarbImpact of gender and gender disparities in patients with kidney diseaseBrar, Amarpali; Markell, MarianaAuthor Information Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA Correspondence to Mariana Markell, MD, Box 52, Division of Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. Tel: +1 718 270 1584; fax: +1 718 270 3327; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: March 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 178-182 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000482 Buy Metrics Abstract Purpose of review Despite evidence of gender-specific differences in epidemiology and outcomes in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), most studies ignore the issue of gender. This review addresses this knowledge gap by evaluating data on gender disparity in this population. Recent findings Population-based studies indicate a higher prevalence of CKD in women; however, there are fewer women on renal replacement therapy than men. Men may progress to end-stage kidney disease more rapidly. Gender differences in rates of CKD progression may be influenced by potential antifibrotic and antiapoptotic effects of estrogen or proinflammatory deleterious effects of testosterone. Women are referred later for kidney replacement therapy and receive fewer arteriovenous fistulas than men receive, irrespective of race. Women are also less likely to receive kidney transplants as compared with men but are more likely to donate a kidney. Summary Recommendations for medical management of CKD patients are currently made in a gender-blind manner, despite the fact that women have differing underlying physiology. Addressing gender differences and disparities is an important and overlooked area in the care of patients with kidney disease. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.