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Fluid management and bioimpedance study in peritoneal dialysis

Ng, Jack Kit-Chung; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension: January 2019 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - p 58–64
doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000466

Purpose of review Maintaining euvolaemia is an essential yet challenging objective in management of patients on peritoneal dialysis. Optimal method to assess volume status remains to be determined. In this review, we will discuss the risk factors and clinical outcomes of fluid overload in PD patients, and examine the role of bioimpedance study in fluid management.

Recent findings Applying bioimpedance study to measure body composition has attracted increasing attention because it is noninvasive and provides point-of-care assessment of fluid status. Observational studies suggested that presence of residual renal function did not necessarily protect peritoneal dialysis patients from developing fluid overload. This reinforces the importance of fluid restriction in peritoneal dialysis patients, in whom the thirst sensation could be exacerbated by hyperglycaemia. Notably, fluid overload is present in significant portion of asymptomatic patients. Moreover, bioimpedance-defined fluid overload is associated with increase in all-cause mortality, technique failure and possibly excess peritonitis rate.

Summary Although future studies should investigate the clinical benefit of bioimpedance-guided fluid management in high-risk subgroup, raising awareness among clinicians, together with structured clinical assessment and dietary counselling are the cornerstone to maintain stable fluid status.

Carol and Richard Yu Peritoneal Dialysis Research Centre, Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

Correspondence to Philip Kam-Tao Li, Professor, Chief of Nephrology and Honorary Professor, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Carol & Richard Yu PD Research Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. Tel: +(852) 3505 3616; fax: +(852) 2637 5396; e-mail:

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